تبلیغات
انجمن علمی مکانیک و مکانیزاسیون کشاورزی دانشگاه محقق اردبیل - قسمت سوم آبیاری
9 بهمن 90

قسمت سوم آبیاری

   نوشته شده توسط: سعید آقا عزیزی    نوع مطلب :مکانیک ماشین آلات ،

در قسمت سوم مجموعه ادوات کشاورزی به بحث در مورد ابیاری مزایا و معایب و لوازم و وسایل مورد نیاز این کار همچنین ادوات ابیاری میپردازیم:

 ماشین های آبیاری :

ایران قدیم که در منطقه گرم و خشک فارس بنیان نهاده شد و جمعیت آن بعداً به حوالی کویرها همچون کرمان، یزد، سمنان و جنوب خراسان گسترش یافتند. از نظر آب کاملاً در مضیقه بود. بدین سبب هنر قنات سازی در آن ظهور نموده و تا امروز تنها کشوری است که این روش آبیاری در آن وجود دارد. با اختراع موتورهای بخار در سال های 1800 و موتورهای احتراق داخلی در آن پس از حفر چاه معمول گشت که تا امروز به رواج کامل خود رسیده است.

بقیه در ادامه ی مطلب

روش نوین آبیاری :

پیشرفت علم مکانیک و احساس کمبود آب در بیشتر نقاط جهان عامل ظهور روش های نوین آبیاری گشته است که به آبیاری تحت فشار موسومند. روش های قدیم آبیاری در فصول قبل توضیح داده شد. روش های آبیاری نوین عبارتند از :  

 

 الف - بارانی : 

۱- افقی متحرک :

لوله آب از منبع و با فشار از درون یک موتور هیدرولیکی گذشته و سپس به تیرک افشانک ها می رود تا از مسیر افشانک ها مزرعه را آبیاری نماید. موتور هیدرولیکی توسط جریان آب می گردد. حرکت دورانی این موتور توسط جعبه دنده ای حرکت افقی چرخ های ماشین تبدیل می گردد. ماشین با سرعتی کم ولی حساب شده در طول مزرعه حرکت می کند تا به انتها برسد. منبع تأمین فشار آب می تواند محور تواندهی تراکتور باشد که پمپ آبی را به حرکت درآورده و آب را از منبع که می تواند نهر یا حوض آب باشد به لوله لاستیکی ماشین داده، از آنجا همانطور که گفته شد به افشانک برساند. ملاحظه می گردد که تمامی افشانک ها و تیر افشانک ها با هم حرکت افقی دارند.

 

۲- دایره ای متحرک :

در این ماشین افشانک ها روی تیر افشانک هایی نصب شده اند که قوسی شکل هستند. قوس تیر افشانک در وسط حول محوری می گردد. تأمین آب تحت فشار به همان صورتی است که در ماشین آبیاری افقی گفته شده فقط تیرافشانک حرکت دورانی دارد. این ماشین پس از مدت حساب شده آبیاری، به منطقه دیگری از مزرعه منتقل می گردد، جایی که همپوشانی کافی فراهم آورد.

۳- ثابت :

انتقال لوله ها از یک محل به محل دیگر مزرعه چندان ساده نیست. بعضی از کشاورزان ، لوله های ثابت را توضیح می دهند. چند خط لوله در سطح مزرعه به طور ثابت تعبیه شده و از آن علم هایی بیرون می آید. در سر هر علم یک افشانک نصب شده است که آب را تا شعاع معینی پراکند. پهنای پاشش بعضی از ماشین های آبیاری بارانی تا 400 متری می رسد.


مزایای آبیاری بارانی :

۱-نیازی به تسطیح مزرعه نیست.

۲- جوی و پشته های آبیاری را لازم ندارد.

۳- بازده آبیاری بالاست یعنی تلفات آب کم و در مصرف آب صرفه جویی می شود.


معایب آبیاری بارانی :

۱- در نواحی گرم و خشک حواشی کویر، تبخیر فوق العاده زیاد است طوری که ممکن است این روش   غیرقابل توصیه باشد.

۲-  هزینه تعمیر ونگهداری آن بالاست.

۳- نیاز به متخصص حرفه ای دارد.

 


ب - آبیاری قطره ای : 

این روش آبیاری برای باغها به کار می رود. لوله های لاستکی روی ردیف کشت درختان انداخته می شوند. در کنار هر درخت معمولاً یک اشانک روی لوله نصب می شود. آب در طول زمان های معینی به طور مداوم ولی قطره قطره به پای رخت می ریزد. بازده آبیاری این روش بیش از بارانی است ولی مشکل عمده آن گرفتگی افشانک ها می باشد. در نقاطی که آب کشاورزی آن سنگین و هوا گرم باشد، افشانک ها به زودی رسوب گرفته از کار می افتند. نگهداری دائم افشانک ها در این مناطق یک الزام است. 

ج - آبیاری چکه ای : 

مصرف آب در این روش بیش از آبیاری قطره ای است. لوله ها معمولاً درون خاک مدفون شده، از سوراخ های ریزی که روی آن ها درآورده شده اند آب به طور شبانه روزی جریان یافته، لذا امکان مسدود شدن سوراخ ها کاهش یافته است. این نوع آبیاری اگر مناسب محل تشخیص داده شود، بیشترین بازده آیاری را داراست. مهم ترین مزیت روش های آبیاری قطره ای و چکه ای در آن است که فقط مسافتی اطراف درخت را آبیاری می نمایند. با این ترتیب در نوارهای خاک بین درختان امکان رشد علف های هرز وجود نداشته یا خیلی کم است. 
  


Freelancer Services
29 شهریور 98 12:09
No body csn deny this fact that site is not good like to have this
Best SPY Camera
29 شهریور 98 12:08
Good and posts are aslo good keep crting that kiind of content
Escorts UK
12 شهریور 98 13:52
sexy2call.co.uk Quick search to get the most up-to-date results Find a massage escort girl,
discrete apartment or any perfect and indulgent recreation. Trying to find escort girls?
Discrete apartments? Complete a quick search by region
נערות ליווי במרכז
8 شهریور 98 20:02
"We should build completely to another crescendo, cheri," he said.
"And we all can have an ending that'll be as none before."

His smile was decadent, his eyes were filled up with lust,
as well as soft skin of his hard cock against my
sex was having its intended effect. I became feeling a stronger arousal
now as I felt his cock slide between my sensitive lips.
I felt the top of his cock push agonizingly at the doorway of
my pussy, and I desired him to thrust into me hard.
Instead he pulled back and slid his hardness back around my
clit.

I was aching to acquire him inside, and I can tell that
his need to push that wonderful hard cock inside me was growing.
His moans grew to fit mine, and I knew the impression of my wet pussy lips within the
head of his cock was getting a lot for both of us.

"Allow the finale begin," he said, and then he slid the top of his cock inside me.


The two of us gasped because he held his cock there to get a moment.
I contracted my pussy to get him further inside,
and he threw his head back at the sensation. Inch by excruciating inch he pushed his cock inside me, and every time I squeezed my pussy around him.
His cock felt wonderful simply because it filled me, but I desired it all inside me.
I rolled to the side and rested my leg against his shoulder,
and he plunged his cock all the way in.
knee-high-socks
20 مرداد 98 00:34
This information is invaluable. Where can I find out more?
角度皮鞋定做
12 مرداد 98 07:43
Greate post. Keep writing such kind of information on your page.
Im really impressed by your site.
Hi there, You have done an incredible job. I will certainly digg
it and in my view recommend to my friends.

I am sure they will be benefited from this website.
썬시티바카라사이트
11 مرداد 98 23:40
썬시티바카라사이트 - Consume adequate level of nutrients, including fibers that lower cholesterol levels,
heart-healthy nuts, fishes, and low-fat dairy abundant
in calcium. You're guaranteed to find something that's
right for you which you'll enjoy. So far, exercise and
balanced diets are thought as 2 of the most important
factors conducive to fit and strong body.
Sexy2Call
4 مرداد 98 20:31
Sexy2call Quick search and get the most recent results Find a massage escort girl,
discrete apartment or any perfect and indulgent recreation. Looking for escort girls?
Discrete apartments? Create a quick search by region
טכנאי מזגנים
30 تیر 98 16:21
thanks a lot a great deal this website is proper plus casual
https://sikkimhub.com/
25 تیر 98 15:50
Heya just wanted to give you a brief heads up and let you know a few of the
images aren't loading correctly. I'm not sure why but I think its a linking issue.

I've tried it in two different browsers and both show the same outcome.
video chat hot
24 تیر 98 17:34
You can find on line the voting outcomes of their clients with reference to
Blackberry cellphone where different facets are considered such
as layout, messaging centers, connectivity, camera attribute , battery life,
working system and definitely the cost. You will expect the image resolution to be around 480x350 pixels, sufficient internal memory, chat
time, option of transferring sufficient information, a genuine organizer and source of amusement too when you consider blackberry mobile.

With the passing of time, require of cells improved and
cellular manufacturing companies began to add some tremendous features like radio, movie player, camera, internet connectivity, Bluetooth, audio
player, games, 3G/4G and storage capability. Latest cellular phones are empowered by GPRS,
3G, HSP, EDGE, Bluetooth, WLAN, USB, SMS, MMS, Email, HTML and
RSS feeds for information transmission at high-speed.
The considerable availability of internet through GPRS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, EDGE and 3G causes this apparatus meeting modern demands.
In actuality, 30 percent of internet traffic is from Adult videos independently.
Looking at the 1 member's IG I am sort of jolt how he appears as a
grownup. So one thing is very important for
getting your children browsing internets and surfing net and sites is the way
guardian's computer literacy. However, most unique thing about it is the fact it is a first most
inexpensive touchscreen phone along with all desirable features.
צימר
24 تیر 98 02:59
Index Search Villas and lofts to book, search by region, find in minutes a villa rented
by city, several different rooms lofts and villas. Be astounded by the
wonderful pictures and information that they have to offer you you.
The website is a center for every person the ads inside field, bachelorette party?
Play with an associate who leaves Israel? Whatever the rationale you need to rent a villa for the next event or just an organization recreation suited to any age.
The site is also center of rooms from the hour, which is already another subject,
for lovers who are trying to find an expensive room equipped for discreet
entertainment using a spouse or lover. No matter what you are interested in, the 0LOFT
website creates a find you to find rentals for loft villas and rooms throughout Israel, North South and
Gush Dan.
manken escort
23 تیر 98 23:32
Simply want to say your article is as surprising. The clarity on your publish is just nice
and i can assume you're an expert in this subject.
Fine along with your permission allow me to clutch your RSS feed to stay up to date with coming near near post.
Thanks 1,000,000 and please carry on the enjoyable work.
וילות להשכרה באילת
23 تیر 98 12:11
Index Search Villas and lofts to book, search by region, find in minutes a villa to rent by city, a variety of rooms lofts and villas.
Be afraid of the pictures and data that the site has to make available you.
The website is a center for every body the ads inside the field, bachelorette party?

Enjoy an associate who leaves Israel? Regardless
of the the rationale it's important to rent a villa for an upcoming event or perhaps friends recreation ideal for any
age. The website is also the biggest market of rooms with the hour, which is definitely another subject, for
lovers who are trying to find a lavish room equipped
for discreet entertainment that has a spouse or lover. Regardless of what you
are searching for, the 0LOFT website will make a find you to
identify rentals for loft villas and rooms throughout Israel, North South
and Gush Dan.
body shaver for ladies
23 تیر 98 03:32
This is particularly beneficial if you're on the lookout for a beard trimmer more compared to 18mm in regards to span settings, which
maybe perhaps not a number of them go that far. If you're searching to
get a superb razor like the last suggestion on my own set of
Best Electric Shaver for Teenagers, this will be it! That's a fine also,
and inadvertently proves the actual gem supporting the Remington MB4045
is that it is the ideal beard trimmer for extensive beards.

For small beards: Anywhere out of 0.5M M that's really just a
rather brief stubble to 4mm that really is a wonderful extended blouse appearance.
However, wherever it lacks is to get small beards that call for a 4mm environment.

The highlight of this MG7750, however, is clearly clear from the identify.
This is going to get your cheek and jaw line absolutely right
to emphasize whatever style you are going for so effectively.
The highlight of this BT7215 is actually
the new and advanced lift and trimming technologies.
https://bestinearheadphonesforsleeping.club
22 تیر 98 22:14
And don't worry concerning what to do with the dorm released
armed forces style bed, many colleges have areas in the
dorm where these products can be kept. No producer consists of IPOD
or MP3 player audio speakers with their systems also though many individuals might utilize these things
to listen to music. I have actually generated a checklist of 7 products that will
certainly make your keep a lot more comfy. Actually, a bean bag chair,
not just are they really comfy, however they are easy to move, and also be available
in every imaginable shade. Ultra and Originals are
favoured by the gents wanting to block out noise for a large range of applications.
Are there Ear Plugs that totally shut out 100%
of sound? In severe situations, there are unique systems created to avoid over a voice phone telephone call completely and with the help
of a 3rd party, details is moved from person to individual.
women's wet dry electric shaver reviews
22 تیر 98 21:56
But, if you would like to eliminate a very small sum of
hairlike round your eyebrows, for yourself a shaver that
comes with tiny, precision attachments. They enjoy you often feel hesitation to buy a trimmer for serving this function because of prosperity of designed
trimmer at the market.Trimmer for private space female should
be decided on with judging its ability along with other fasteners.

Sure Start has played an integral role within the power building and activation of government-accredited community-based
teams such as Village Health and Sanitation Committees (VHSCs) and Accredited Social
Health Activists (ASHAs). I believe that you should start
to learn which you would love to play with, and also might delight in playing longer.

The small appliances could possibly be properly used for numerous features such as cleaning , washing, cooking, Laundry and so forth.
Domestic equipment together with fridges, dishwashersand laundry machines, air conditioners, microwaves and humidifiers
can be repaired by using way of talking the
criticism to authorized dealers or technicians. A number
of home gadgets are to be had for domestic that have simplified people's
lives.
link
18 تیر 98 01:21
It's amazing for me to have a web site, which is beneficial designed for my knowledge.
thanks admin
Ellesse Shoes
17 تیر 98 16:25
Very informative post. Thanks
Capital Smart City Islamabad
17 تیر 98 16:24
I got very useful information in this article. Thank You Admin
click here
16 تیر 98 19:06
Keep on working, great job!
נערות ליווי בבת ים
11 تیر 98 16:07
Sexy2call Quick search and have the most recent results Choose
a massage escort girl, discrete apartment or any perfect and indulgent recreation. Trying
to find escort girls? Discrete apartments? Complete a quick search by region
spor bahis siteleri
7 تیر 98 19:23
Hey There. I discovered your weblog the usage of msn. This is an extremely well written article.
I'll be sure to bookmark it and return to learn extra of your helpful information. Thanks for the post.
I'll definitely return.
bahis siteleri giris adresi
7 تیر 98 02:54
What i do not realize is in reality how you are not actually a lot more well-preferred
than you might be right now. You are very intelligent.
You understand thus significantly with regards to this topic, produced me individually imagine it from so many various
angles. Its like women and men are not involved except it is something to accomplish with Girl gaga!
Your own stuffs outstanding. Always take care
of it up!
Intensive Driving Courses
6 تیر 98 14:40
Nice
https://intensivepass.co.uk
דירה דיסקרטיות
5 تیر 98 03:31
We're having coffee at Nylon Coffee Roasters on Everton Park in Singapore.
I'm having black coffee, he's creating a cappuccino.
They're handsome. Brown hair slicked back, glasses
that are great for his face, hazel eyes and the prettiest lips I've seen. They're well built, with incredible arms plus a chest that is unique on this
sweater. We're standing in front of one another talking about our way of life, what we'd like in the future, what
we're seeking on another person. He starts telling me that she has been rejected loads
of times.

‘Why Andrew? You're so handsome. I'd never reject you ', I say He smiles at me, biting his lip.


‘Oh, I can't know. Everything happens for reasons right.
But figure out, you wouldn't reject me, would you Ana?' He
said.

‘No, how could I?' , I replied

"So, make use of mind if I kissed you at the moment?' he stated as I get nearer to him and kiss him.

‘The next occasion don't ask, function it.' I reply.

‘I'm keen on how you think.' , he said.

While waiting, I start scrubbing my high heel in the leg, massaging it slowly. ‘What do that suits you in women? And, Andrew, don't spare me the details.' I ask.

‘I really like determined women. Someone to know whatever they want. Someone that won't say yes simply because I said yes. Someone who's unafraid of trying something totally new,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid of attempting interesting things, especially with regards to making interesting things in bed ', I intimate ‘And I like girls that are direct, who cut through the chase, like you only did. To get
honest, that is a huge turn on.
sincan vestel servisi
4 تیر 98 21:29
sincan vestel servisi - http://yetkiliservis-tr.com
keçiören bosch servisi
4 تیر 98 21:28
keçiören bosch servisi - http://yetkiliservis-tr.com
gölbaşı arçelik servisi
4 تیر 98 21:25
gölbaşı arçelik servisi - http://yetkiliservis-tr.com
çayyolu arçelik servisi
4 تیر 98 21:24
çayyolu arçelik servisi - http://yetkiliservis-tr.com
 
لبخندناراحتچشمک
نیشخندبغلسوال
قلبخجالتزبان
ماچتعجبعصبانی
عینکشیطانگریه
خندهقهقههخداحافظ
سبزقهرهورا
دستگلتفکر
نمایش نظرات 1 تا 30